In 'Metis Pioneers' MacKinnon compares the survival strategies of two Métis women - Marie Rose Delorme Smith and Isabella Clark Hardisty Lougheed born during the fur trade – one from the French-speaking free trade tradition and one from the English-speaking Hudson’s Bay Company tradition – who settled in southern Alberta as the fur trade declined in favour of paper trade and a changing social landscape. Born of family involved in the North West Company and the Hudson Bay Company respectively this is the story of their French-Metis and Anglo-Metis lives. Acts and legislation defined them, for example in 1870, 'des Métis residants" or the English version, "half-breeds" was used to describe people of Indigenous and Euro-North American ethnicity suggesting two separate and distinct groups. In later Canadian legislation Métis is largely undefined and is left to the courts to decide. MacKinnon provides rare insight into their lives through political, kinship, geographical, social and economic challenges, demonstrating the contributions Metis women made to the building of the Prairie West and especially the Red River area. This is a compelling tale of two women’s acts of quiet resistance in the final days of the British Empire. This book is based on the biographies of two Metis women pioneers using a research methodology that embeds and refines previous historical knowledge about Metis people. Doris Jeanne MacKinnon was born in northeastern Alberta and attended school in St-Paul-des-Métis. She has a PhD in Indigenous and post-Confederation Canadian history.